Evaluations

Educational Evaluations

The goal of an evaluation is to intervene as soon as possible with any individual who is struggling to achieve. Some students have been evaluated for learning differences by a professional prior to contacting our clinic. If a student has not had an evaluation to determine deficits and strengths our clinic offers this service. Accurate identification of deficit areas and documentation of an individual’s strengths provides a helpful guide for effective treatment.

It is important to document where a child is currently functioning in terms of reading, spelling, writing and mathematics. Determining a baseline allows us as clinicians to clearly outline the appropriate intervention for each individual. It also gives the parents and student important information about his/her achievement potential and specific deficits which may be preventing access to that potential. Consistent progress monitoring of a student’s response to intervention is continual ensuring the student is making progress and overcoming their struggle.

We have made every effort to streamline our evaluations using the most valid and predictive standardized measures. If there is a need for a more in-depth evaluation by a clinical psychologist to determine the presence of ADH/D or other related disorders we will provide the names of reputable and highly experienced therapists. Our clinic is not in the business of “testing to treat”. It is more common for us to “treat and test” meaning that an individual’s response to treatment provides a working knowledge of areas of concern that may be preventing adequate response. Providing an adequate opportunity to learn and knowing the integrity of the intervention provided by our clinic we can reliably determine if further testing and evaluation is indicated.

What is an Evaluation?

When a child is struggling to read, someone will probably suggest that he or she be tested for dyslexia. What does it mean to be tested? You might think that of a test as something you take in an afternoon. Someone scores it and tells you how you did. Evaluation is a more accurate word to describe the process of determining if someone has dyslexia. The word evaluation encompasses identification, screening, testing, diagnosis, and all the other information gathering involved when the student, his or her family, and a team of professionals work together to determine why the student is having difficulty and what can be done to help.

Why Get One?

An evaluation is the process of gathering information to identify the factors contributing to a student’s difficulty with learning to read and spell. First, information is gathered from parents and teachers to understand development and the educational opportunities that have been provided. Then, tests are given to identify strengths and weaknesses that lead to a diagnosis and a tentative road map for intervention. Conclusions and recommendations are developed and reported. When a student is having difficulties with reading and spelling, an evaluation is important for three reasons.

 1. Diagnosis An effective evaluation identifies the likely source of the problem. It rules out other common causes of reading difficulties and determines if the student profile of strengths and weaknesses fit the definition of dyslexia.

2. Intervention planning An effective evaluation develops a focused remedial program. Students who have a specific learning disability in reading (dyslexia) need a specialized approach to reading instruction to make progress. It is crucial that this specialized instruction begin at the student’s current level of reading skill development, rather than at the student’s grade level. An effective evaluation helps parents and teachers see which specific skills are weak and where reading and spelling instruction should begin.

3. Documentation An effective evaluation documents the history of a student’s learning disability. One purpose of this documentation is to determine eligibility for special services, including special education. Documentation is also important for obtaining accommodations on college entrance exams (ACT, SAT), in college, or in the workplace.

Identify Early

The identification of a reading disorder (dyslexia) needs to happen as soon as it is suspected by a parent, teacher or physician. Individuals need intervention so they can learn to read and go on to be skilled readers. Developmental dyslexia is a language-based disorder that is neurological in origin. It affects reading and it runs in families.

As children grow older difficulty with reading can begin to become more obvious. As the demand for good reading and related skills (spelling, writing, test taking) increases in quantity and quality a child with poorly developed reading and writing abilities begins to fall behind. Parents and teachers often don’t realize reading is the problem. When speed and accuracy are compromised because a student cannot accurately decode new vocabulary, reading slows down in a greater effort to understand or comprehend the text. Frustration can take over as the student begins to feel like they “just don’t get it”.

Skilled readers develop a large storage system of word representations having built this across years of reading instruction, practice and application. Skilled readers can digest words quickly, accurately moving through text building meaning and reflecting on what is being taken in. When it is difficult to process print accurately and quickly developing ideas from reading is labor intensive. It is difficult to generate creative thinking when the reading is slow and the volume is overwhelming.

Reading fluently (accurately and quickly) for meaning is what drives a reader through the print. Evaluation of Dyslexia or a reading disorder identifies a phonological, language- based disorder, and related deficits such as poor spelling, reading comprehension, and sometimes attentional problems. “The most identifiable and consistent characteristic of dyslexia is encapsulated in a phonologic weakness.” Dr. Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia

The phonological weakness can be treated successfully if the right instruction and enough of the right instruction is put into place. It is important to establish exactly what areas are giving a student difficulty and impeding achievement. A phonologic weakness makes reading difficult, slow and labor intensive. Verbal skills, such as listening and understanding complex information, are different from reading and usually not affected by the phonologic weakness. It is not uncommon for a person with a reading disorder to have an impressive knowledge base about a particular subject. These higher level verbal abilities can disguise a reading disorder.

A phonologic deficit makes it hard for a person to decode or pull apart sounds (phonemes) in a word. How smart a person is does not matter. Individuals try to decode words they can’t read by using pictures or they guess a word based on the surrounding text or the beginning sound of the unknown word. Younger students try to cope or compensate by memorizing a large store of reading vocabulary. Memorizing all the words you need to be able to read is one way to read, but it is not the best or most efficient way to read. It breaks down when a student starts to come across a lot of words they have never seen or heard before.

Reading English means that a person has to master the sound system of the language not the way a word looks. Our language is alphabetic not a picture language. Reading efficiently requires knowing the sounds and the rules that field of study or vocation. Even though they may be able to read material related to their particular interest a lack of reading fluency may still be existent and spelling is difficult. Writing is really hard when spelling is not fluent In school age children it is important to document overall achievement (grades, work samples, standardized tests) to gather evidence of strengths as well as weaknesses in achievement.

Who Does Them?

A full psycho-educational evaluation is best done by a Licensed Clinical Psychologist who specializes in this type of testing.

 Upon request, we can provide a short list of evaluators to you.  Our office can review the results of your testing and provide intervention for the identified deficits.

What Should be Included in an Evaluation?

Background information. Information from parents and teachers tells us a lot about a student’s overall development and pattern of strengths and weaknesses. Because dyslexia is genetically linked, a family history of dyslexia indicates that a student is more likely to have dyslexia. A history of delayed speech or language also puts a child at-risk for reading difficulties. It is important to know the types and length of time of any interventions the student has received at school, home, or through tutoring, as well as the student’s response to the intervention. School attendance problems should be ruled out. A history of poor attendance, alone, can explain an identified weakness in skill development.

Intelligence. Until recently, an intelligence test was considered to be a necessary part of the evaluation because the diagnosis of a learning disability was based on finding a significant difference between IQ and reading skill. Poor achievement despite average or better intelligence was considered a key indicator. Current regulations no longer require that such a discrepancy be present when making a diagnosis. This change in the regulations came about because many studies have shown that intelligence is not the best predictor of how easily a student will develop written language (reading and spelling) skills. Instead, oral language abilities (listening and speaking) are considered the best predictors of reading and spelling. A formal measure of intelligence is not always needed to document average intellectual abilities. For younger children, parent information about language development and teacher information about the child’s ability to learn orally may indicate average intellectual abilities. For older students or adults, past achievement in school or work may indicate at least average intelligence.

Oral language skills. Oral language, simply stated, refers to our ability to listen to and understand speech as well as to express our thoughts through speech. Oral language is made up of low-level skills, such as recognizing and making the sounds within our speech, and higher-level skills, such as getting meaning by listening to someone speak or creating sentences to express thoughts. Students with dyslexia typically have adequate higher-level language skills. Indicators of higher-level oral language skills include being able to understand an age-appropriate story and spoken directions, to carry on a conversation, and to understand and use words that are age appropriate. If a student has average higher-level oral language skills but much difficulty developing written language (reading and spelling) skills, the need for evaluation for dyslexia is recommended.

Although students with dyslexia usually have strong higher-level language skills, they typically have problems (a deficit) in low-level language skills (see following section “Phonological processing”). This deficit limits the ability to learn to read and spell using the sounds of the language. Young children with dyslexia often have delays in language development, but their higher-level language skills are usually age-appropriate by the time they enter school. Difficulties with higher-level language skills suggest a need for a language evaluation by a speech-language pathologist to rule out language impairment. 

Word recognition. Word recognition is the ability to read single printed words. It is also called word reading or word identification. Tests of word recognition require that students read individual words printed in a list. The student is not able to use cues, such as the meaning of a sentence, to help them figure out the word. Tests of word recognition that score both accuracy and the time it takes for the student to read the words (fluency) are particularly useful. Students with dyslexia often become accurate but are still very slow when reading words. Both accuracy and the speed of word reading can affect understanding what is read.

Decoding. Decoding is the ability to read unfamiliar words by using letter-sound knowledge, spelling patterns and chunking the word into smaller parts, such as syllables. Decoding is also called “word attack”. Decoding tests should use nonsense words (words that look like real words but have no meaning, such as frut or crin) to force the student to rely on these decoding skills rather than on memory for a word already learned.

Spelling. Tests of spelling measure the student’s ability to spell individual words from memory using their knowledge of, for example, letter-sound pairings, patterns of letters that cluster together to spell one sound (igh in high; oa in boat), the way plurals may be spelled (s, es, ies) and so on. Spelling is the opposite of word attack but is even more difficult. It requires separating out the individual sounds in a spoken word, remembering the different ways each sound might be spelled, choosing one way, writing the letter(s) for that sound and doing the same, again, for the next sound in the word. Spelling stresses a child’s short and long-term memory and is complicated by the ease or difficulty the child has in writing the letters, legibly and in the proper order. Spelling is usually the most severe weakness among students with dyslexia and the most difficult to remedy.

Phonological processing. Phonology is one small part of overall language ability. It is a low-level language skill in that it does not involve meaning. Phonology is the “sound system” of our language. Our spoken language is made up of words, word parts (such as syllables), and individual sounds (phonemes). We must be able to think about, remember, and correctly sequence the sounds in words in order to learn to link letters to sounds for reading and spelling. Good readers do this automatically without conscious effort. However, students with dyslexia have difficulty with identifying, pronouncing, or recalling sounds. Tests of phonological processing focus on these skills.

Automaticity/fluency skills. Students with dyslexia often have a slow speed of processing information (visual or auditory). Tasks measure Naming Speed (also called Rapid Automatic Naming). Sets of objects, colors, letters, and numbers are often used. These items are presented in rows on a card, and the student is asked to name each as quickly as possible. Naming speed, particularly letter naming, is one of the best early predictors of reading difficulties. Therefore, it is often used as part of screening measures for young children. Slow naming speed results in problems with developing reading fluency. It also makes it difficult for students to do well on timed tests. Students with both the naming speed deficit and the phonological processing deficit are considered to have a “double deficit.” Students with the double deficit have more severe difficulties than those with only one of the two.

Customer Reviews

Customer Reviews

  Thank you Holly so very much for your kind email and incredible support and guidance through the years. You are an amazing advocate for all our children, and we feel lucky to have you and your team in our lives.” – S&T

  BTW…You are an amazing woman…I don’t get the chance to tell you that much in the pass off during sessions, but you have been a miracle worker in our lives.  I hope that everyone in the world knows you are so amazing, and I hope too that more practitioners get to hear from you about how tutor and teach in order to save these talented kids from so much emotional trauma and a potentially marginalized life that can result for kids when dyslexia isn’t addressed with acceptance, deep understanding (not just clinical understanding), love and skill.
You have brought more joy and hope into this house than I can ever tell you – SA

  Thank you for the appt notes. As we were walking out, G shared that it was his best Ms. Joni’s of the year so far. He was very excited to tell me he was “finally mastering” long division.  At bedtime, he also told R and I that “it’s just been a great day for me”. Can’t beat that!  – J

  I took the PSAT and I got a 1300. I got a 660 on the reading and writing and a 640 on the math. I did better on reading and writing than I did on math! A 1300 is the 97th percentile and I owe it all to you. THANK YOU! I miss you! Love, DC

  Hi Kristen, I wanted you to know that C had her reading assessment done today and she more than doubled her level from the end of the year!! Thank you!!

   Hi Holly, Just thought you should know that so far S has been accepted at DU, Lewis and Clark, Seattle U, Savannah College of Art and Design and Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA). She got scholarship offers from Seattle and Maryland. 
I’m thinking you should use her for advertising in case you need an awesome success story! Seriously though you were the EXACTLY what she needed and we are so grateful for all your love and dedication!  – XOXO, K

   So, K almost always gets along well with his teachers and tutors. However, I have NEVER seen him so happy or sound so effusive after meeting with you today.

“Mom, she’s a genius. She knows everything about dyslexia and language and she explains it in a really interesting way.” He went on and on. He talked – whole, long sentences – for a long time in the car. I can hardly get him to mumble yes or no in the car most days.

Let’s be honest, 14 year old boys aren’t typically “bubbly.” Kyle was bubbly and happy and very very impressed. Thought you’d like to know and mostly, thanks. We’ll see you bright and early tomorrow morning. – JI

   First –a HUGE thank you to you both for helping C over the years!  I think his report card speaks for itself – wow!  We are so proud of him.  We could have never done this without you all as part of our team.

   She is making SO MUCH progress and every time I read one of your process notes I get so excited.  You are simply amazing! What you’ve done for A will be with her for LIFE!! xoxo K

   Boy, it has been a long time coming to have him finally feeling successful in school.  He told T in the car the other night how nice it was to not be behind in classes.  He said he had many a sleepless night last year worrying about school. (I would have liked to have known that!)  Anyway, thank you all for helping us along the way.  You have been an incredible support system and I feel so very lucky to have found you.

  WOW! You have absolutely transformed my little J. He is feeling so good about himself, thank you for everything!!!! S

  Just wanted to let you know that K is doing great!  Made the honor roll this semester. Thank you for all of the help that you gave us over the last few years!!  You made a world of difference to K and me.  We could not have come this far without you!    Love P

  Found out today that M has been approved for extended time on the ACT! I simply cannot thank you both enough- if it weren’t for you two, we wouldn’t have a reading impairment diagnosis, we wouldn’t have a 504 Plan, and we wouldn’t have extended time. I hope you both know how much of a difference you have made for her (and that’s even without considering the incredible value of the tutoring!). We are so grateful for your help, your expertise and your engagement. See you soon! – AS

   S reads constantly now and we actually have to take the book away at times so she can get other things accomplished. THANK YOU THANK YOU!!!!! I hope all is well with you. – JMM

   The staff at Holly Graves made a huge impact on our son’s well being. Through his tutoring sessions, they were able to spot his learning disorder, direct us to an outstanding resource for help, support our son’s academic needs through a tutoring plan and help to build his self esteem through academic successes. The impact of HGA’s staff has been tremendous: academic turnaround and growth coupled with confidence. We are very grateful to the staff at HGA for their skilled and caring efforts. Our son loved coming to HGA and we are happy to recommend the staff and services at Holly Graves and Associates.”  Mother of H.S. Sophomore

Dyslexia

Dyslexia

What is Dyslexia?

In simple terms, dyslexia is a problem that makes learning to read hard and makes reading in general an activity to avoid at all costs. Young children begin life excited at the prospect of learning how to read and write. For many children, going to kindergarten means they are going to learn to read. Some of these children are predisposed to dyslexia and are unknowingly at “high-risk” for developing reading failure. Dyslexia is found in very smart people who have achieved great things. There is an impressive list of high achievers with dyslexia.

Dylexia Basics

from The International Dyslexia Association®

Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability. Dyslexia refers to a cluster of symptoms, which result in people having difficulties with specific language skills, particularly reading. Students with dyslexia usually experience difficulties with other language skills such as spelling, writing, and pronouncing words .  Read more . . .

Learning to Read

Learning how to speak . . . is something all of us achieve, but not all of us learn how to read naturally and easily. Reading backwards, upside down or words jumping around on the page is not dyslexia. Wearing colored glasses or tracking activities for the eyes is not going to teach a person how to read. Our brains have to be able to work with the “sounds” of the language that we speak when we read. Yes, letters are something that we see when we read, but they are symbols for sound. Turning sounds into words is reading. Turning sounds into printed symbols for those sounds is spelling. For example:  Many people think we look at a word like was and remember it in our visual system as a neat little chunk of letters that says ‘wuz’. Not so. Our visual system sees the squiggles and sends the information to the back of our brain that wakes up and screams, “letters, meaningful information has come our way.” Within 150 to 250 milliseconds of seeing a word the visual processor has turned over the job to the “phonological-sounding out brain” to read it.  Read these words: ‘Reflicmuntional’ ‘Broumps’ How did you figure out the word? Didn’t you have to rely on your brain turning letters into sound? Unlocking the sound code of the English Language in a way that is effortless and unconscious is where good reading begins. Reading is not a skill that all of us naturally “do”. Some of the brightest individuals will have trouble learning how to read. Dyslexia is no longer a mystery and the ways in which children and adults are taught to read and overcome dyslexia is not “voodoo”. Explicit, systematic research-based methods to teach individuals the “code” of our language allows them to learn how to read efficiently and accurately.

Dyslexia is an Inherited Genetic Trait

Not all brains learn how to read as easily as other brains. Dsylexia is an inherited genetic trait and may or may not be “expressed” in an individual. A person may be predisposed or at “high risk” for experiencing dyslexia, but it is not entirely genetic. A combination of environmental exposure and genetic endowment are responsible for what kind of reader a child will ultimately become. Because dyslexia is inherited it runs in families and should be identified and treated as early as possible. Remember though it is never too late to learn how to read.

The probability of inheriting dyslexia is between 25 to 50 percent if a parent or a sibling is diagnosed with dyslexia. Often a parent has not been formally diagnosed with dyslexia, but comes to the realization once their child is diagnosed. If one sibling in a family is diagnosed, the chances are almost fifty percent that the other siblings will be diagnosed with dsylexia as well. Early, rich exposure to language and the quality of reading instruction plays an enormous role in a child’s reading success regardless of dyslexia.

The technical research definition for dyslexia is as follows:

“Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulities with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom intstruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.”

People with dyslexia have trouble spelling and rely heavily on their memories for both reading and writing. Many dyslexic people, especially those people who have a capacity to memorize words can “read”. The problem is they don’t read well and don’t like to read. If they don’t know the word already they have no way to figure out a new word. They are locked into a very inefficient visual memory system that breaks down whenever the phonological or sounding out system is needed to figure out how to “say” the new word.

Spelling difficulties and difficulty with reading comprehension are often secondary weaknesses that result from undiagnosed and untreated dyslexia. Not every person who is dyslexic is the same and each person recovers at their own rate and within their own ability. The earlier a person is treated the better the outcome.

Is My Child Dyslexic?

from The International Dyslexia Association®

Individuals with dyslexia have trouble with reading, writing, spelling and/or math even though they have the ability and have had opportunities to learn . . . read more about symptoms

Stress, Anxiety and Dyslexia

Anxiety comes in many forms. It can be situational (that is, specific to one kind or class of worry, like traveling or being in social situations). Individuals with dyslexia may experience stress and anxiety in situations in which they feel they will make mistakes, be ridiculed, or made to feel foolish in front of others.  Read more about stress, anxiety, and dyslexia . . .

Social and Emotional Problems and Dyslexia

from The International Dyslexia Association®

According to research done by Samuel T. Orton, MD,the majority of dyslexic preschoolers are happy and well adjusted. Their emotional problems begin to develop when early reading instruction does not match their learning style . . . read more about Social and Emotional problems

What is MultiSensory Teaching?

Multisensory teaching is one important aspect of instruction for dyslexic students that is used by clinically trained teachers. Effective instruction for students with dyslexia is also explicit, direct, cumulative, intensive, and focused on the structure of language. Read more about Multisensory Teaching

Understanding Dysgraphia

Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that affects how easily children acquire written language and how well they use written language to express their thoughts . . . read more about Dysgraphia . . . 

What is the Best Method for Teaching Children with Dysgraphia?

As yet, there is no certifiably best method for teaching children who experience reading difficulty (Mathes et al., 2005). For instance,

research does not support the common belief that Orton-Gillingham–based approaches are necessary for students classified as dyslexic (Ritchey & Goeke, 2007; Turner, 2008; Vaughn & Linan-Thompson, 2003).

Reviews of research focusing solely on decoding interventions have shown either small to moderate or variable effects that rarely persist over time, and little to no effects on more global reading skills. Rather, students classified as dyslexic have varying strengths and challenges, and teaching them is too complex a task for a scripted, one-size-fits-all program (Coyne et al., 2013; Phillips & Smith, 1997; Simmons, 2015). Optimal instruction calls for teachers’ professional expertise and responsiveness, and for the freedom to act on the basis of that professionalism.  (International Literacy Association, Research Advisory: Dyslexia, 2016.  Read the full article . . . )

Dyslexia

MultiSensory Rationale

Why use MultiSensory Instruction?

Students with dyslexia often exhibit weaknesses in underlying language skills involving speech sounds (phonological) and print (orthographic) processing and in building brain pathways that connect speech with print. The brain pathways used for reading and spelling must develop to connect many brain areas and must transmit information with sufficient speed and accuracy. Most students with dyslexia have weak phonemic awareness, meaning they are unaware of the role sounds play in words. 

These students may also have difficulty rhyming words, blending sounds to make words, or segmenting words into sounds. Because of their trouble establishing associations between sounds and symbols, they also have trouble learning to recognize words automatically (“by sight”) or fast enough to allow comprehension. If they are not accurate with sounds or symbols, they will have trouble forming memories for common words, even the “little” words in students’ books. They need specialized instruction to master the alphabetic code and to form those memories.

When taught by a multisensory approach, students have the advantage of learning alphabetic patterns and words with engagement of all learning modalities. Dr. Samuel Terry Orton, one of the first to recognize the syndrome of dyslexia in students, suggested that teaching the “fundamentals of phonic association with letter forms, both visually presented and reproduced in writing until the correct associations were built up,” would benefit students of all ages.

What is an Evaluation?

When a child is struggling to read, someone will probably suggest that he or she be tested for dyslexia. What does it mean to be tested? You might think that of a test as something you take in an afternoon. Someone scores it and tells you how you did. Evaluation is a more accurate word to describe the process of determining if someone has dyslexia. The word evaluation encompasses identification, screening, testing, diagnosis, and all the other information gathering involved when the student, his or her family, and a team of professionals work together to determine why the student is having difficulty and what can be done to help.

Why Get One?

An evaluation is the process of gathering information to identify the factors contributing to a student's difficulty with learning to read and spell. First, information is gathered from parents and teachers to understand development and the educational opportunities that have been provided. Then, tests are given to identify strengths and weaknesses that lead to a diagnosis and a tentative road map for intervention. Conclusions and recommendations are developed and reported. When a student is having difficulties with reading and spelling, an evaluation is important for three reasons.

1. Diagnosis An effective evaluation identifies the likely source of the problem. It rules out other common causes of reading difficulties and determines if the student profile of strengths and weaknesses fit the definition of dyslexia.

2. Intervention planning An effective evaluation develops a focused remedial program. Students who have a specific learning disability in reading (dyslexia) need a specialized approach to reading instruction to make progress. It is crucial that this specialized instruction begin at the student's current level of reading skill development, rather than at the student's grade level. An effective evaluation helps parents and teachers see which specific skills are weak and where reading and spelling instruction should begin.

3. Documentation An effective evaluation documents the history of a student's learning disability. One purpose of this documentation is to determine eligibility for special services, including special education. Documentation is also important for obtaining accommodations on college entrance exams (ACT, SAT), in college, or in the workplace.

Identify Early

  • The identification of a reading disorder (dyslexia) needs to happen as soon as it is suspected by a parent, teacher or physician. Individuals need intervention so they can learn to read and go on to be skilled readers. Developmental dyslexia is a language-based disorder that is neurological in origin. It affects reading and it runs in families.

     As children grow older difficulty with reading can begin to become more obvious. As the demand for good reading and related skills (spelling, writing, test taking) increases in quantity and quality a child with poorly developed reading and writing abilities begins to fall behind. Parents and teachers often don’t realize reading is the problem. When speed and accuracy are compromised because a student cannot accurately decode new vocabulary, reading slows down in a greater effort to understand or comprehend the text. Frustration can take over as the student begins to feel like they “just don’t get it”.

    Skilled readers develop a large storage system of word representations having built this across years of reading instruction, practice and application. Skilled readers can digest words quickly, accurately moving through text building meaning and reflecting on what is being taken in. When it is difficult to process print accurately and quickly developing ideas from reading is labor intensive. It is difficult to generate creative thinking when the reading is slow and the volume is overwhelming.

     Reading fluently (accurately and quickly) for meaning is what drives a reader through the print. Evaluation of Dyslexia or a reading disorder identifies a phonological, language- based disorder, and related deficits such as poor spelling, reading comprehension, and sometimes attentional problems. “The most identifiable and consistent characteristic of dyslexia is encapsulated in a phonologic weakness.” Dr. Sally Shaywitz, Overcoming Dyslexia

     The phonological weakness can be treated successfully if the right instruction and enough of the right instruction is put into place. It is important to establish exactly what areas are giving a student difficulty and impeding achievement. A phonologic weakness makes reading difficult, slow and labor intensive. Verbal skills, such as listening and understanding complex information, are different from reading and usually not affected by the phonologic weakness. It is not uncommon for a person with a reading disorder to have an impressive knowledge base about a particular subject. These higher level verbal abilities can disguise a reading disorder.

     A phonologic deficit makes it hard for a person to decode or pull apart sounds (phonemes) in a word. How smart a person is does not matter. Individuals try to decode words they can’t read by using pictures or they guess a word based on the surrounding text or the beginning sound of the unknown word. Younger students try to cope or compensate by memorizing a large store of reading vocabulary. Memorizing all the words you need to be able to read is one way to read, but it is not the best or most efficient way to read. It breaks down when a student starts to come across a lot of words they have never seen or heard before.

     Reading English means that a person has to master the sound system of the language not the way a word looks. Our language is alphabetic not a picture language. Reading efficiently requires knowing the sounds and the rules that field of study or vocation. Even though they may be able to read material related to their particular interest a lack of reading fluency may still be existent and spelling is difficult. Writing is really hard when spelling is not fluent In school age children it is important to document overall achievement (grades, work samples, standardized tests) to gather evidence of strengths as well as weaknesses in achievement.

Who Does Them?

A full psycho-educational evaluation is best done by a Licensed Clinical Psychologist who specializes in this type of testing.

 Upon request, we can provide a short list of evaluators to you.  Our office can review the results of your testing and provide intervention for the identified deficits.

What should be Included?

Background information

Information from parents and teachers tells us a lot about a student's overall development and pattern of strengths and weaknesses. Because dyslexia is genetically linked, a family history of dyslexia indicates that a student is more likely to have dyslexia. A history of delayed speech or language also puts a child at-risk for reading difficulties. It is important to know the types and length of time of any interventions the student has received at school, home, or through tutoring, as well as the student's response to the intervention. School attendance problems should be ruled out. A history of poor attendance, alone, can explain an identified weakness in skill development.

 Intelligence

Until recently, an intelligence test was considered to be a necessary part of the evaluation because the diagnosis of a learning disability was based on finding a significant difference between IQ and reading skill. Poor achievement despite average or better intelligence was considered a key indicator. Current regulations no longer require that such a discrepancy be present when making a diagnosis. This change in the regulations came about because many studies have shown that intelligence is not the best predictor of how easily a student will develop written language (reading and spelling) skills. Instead, oral language abilities (listening and speaking) are considered the best predictors of reading and spelling. A formal measure of intelligence is not always needed to document average intellectual abilities. For younger children, parent information about language development and teacher information about the child's ability to learn orally may indicate average intellectual abilities. For older students or adults, past achievement in school or work may indicate at least average intelligence.

 Oral language skills

Oral language, simply stated, refers to our ability to listen to and understand speech as well as to express our thoughts through speech. Oral language is made up of low-level skills, such as recognizing and making the sounds within our speech, and higher-level skills, such as getting meaning by listening to someone speak or creating sentences to express thoughts. Students with dyslexia typically have adequate higher-level language skills. Indicators of higher-level oral language skills include being able to understand an age-appropriate story and spoken directions, to carry on a conversation, and to understand and use words that are age appropriate. If a student has average higher-level oral language skills but much difficulty developing written language (reading and spelling) skills, the need for evaluation for dyslexia is recommended.

 Although students with dyslexia usually have strong higher-level language skills, they typically have problems (a deficit) in low-level language skills (see following section "Phonological processing"). This deficit limits the ability to learn to read and spell using the sounds of the language. Young children with dyslexia often have delays in language development, but their higher-level language skills are usually age-appropriate by the time they enter school. Difficulties with higher-level language skills suggest a need for a language evaluation by a speech-language pathologist to rule out language impairment.

 Word recognition

Word recognition is the ability to read single printed words. It is also called word reading or word identification. Tests of word recognition require that students read individual words printed in a list. The student is not able to use cues, such as the meaning of a sentence, to help them figure out the word. Tests of word recognition that score both accuracy and the time it takes for the student to read the words (fluency) are particularly useful. Students with dyslexia often become accurate but are still very slow when reading words. Both accuracy and the speed of word reading can affect understanding what is read.

 Decoding

Decoding is the ability to read unfamiliar words by using letter-sound knowledge, spelling patterns and chunking the word into smaller parts, such as syllables. Decoding is also called "word attack". Decoding tests should use nonsense words (words that look like real words but have no meaning, such as frut or crin) to force the student to rely on these decoding skills rather than on memory for a word already learned.

 Spelling

Tests of spelling measure the student's ability to spell individual words from memory using their knowledge of, for example, letter-sound pairings, patterns of letters that cluster together to spell one sound (igh in high; oa in boat), the way plurals may be spelled (s, es, ies) and so on. Spelling is the opposite of word attack but is even more difficult. It requires separating out the individual sounds in a spoken word, remembering the different ways each sound might be spelled, choosing one way, writing the letter(s) for that sound and doing the same, again, for the next sound in the word. Spelling stresses a child's short and long-term memory and is complicated by the ease or difficulty the child has in writing the letters, legibly and in the proper order. Spelling is usually the most severe weakness among students with dyslexia and the most difficult to remedy.

Phonological processing

Phonology is one small part of overall language ability. It is a low-level language skill in that it does not involve meaning. Phonology is the "sound system" of our language. Our spoken language is made up of words, word parts (such as syllables), and individual sounds (phonemes). We must be able to think about, remember, and correctly sequence the sounds in words in order to learn to link letters to sounds for reading and spelling. Good readers do this automatically without conscious effort. However, students with dyslexia have difficulty with identifying, pronouncing, or recalling sounds. Tests of phonological processing focus on these skills.

 Automaticity/fluency skills

Students with dyslexia often have a slow speed of processing information (visual or auditory). Tasks measure Naming Speed (also called Rapid Automatic Naming). Sets of objects, colors, letters, and numbers are often used. These items are presented in rows on a card, and the student is asked to name each as quickly as possible. Naming speed, particularly letter naming, is one of the best early predictors of reading difficulties. Therefore, it is often used as part of screening measures for young children. Slow naming speed results in problems with developing reading fluency. It also makes it difficult for students to do well on timed tests. Students with both the naming speed deficit and the phonological processing deficit are considered to have a "double deficit." Students with the double deficit have more severe difficulties than those with only one of the two.

The Science of Reading

from "The Science of Reading (A Response to the New York Times", by David Hurford, the IDA Examiner Vol 9, Issue 1 https://dyslexiaida.org/the-science-of-reading-a-response-to-the-new-york-timesIt is encouraging that the New York Times showed an interest in the very...

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Adolescent Literacy

Truths about Adolescent Literacy Adolescence is not too late to intervene.  Interventions do benefit older students. Older students with reading difficulties benefit from interventions focused at both the word and text level. Older students with reading difficulties...

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Resources for ADHD

ADHD Basics: ADHD: The Basics (National Institute of Mental Health) New ADHD Guidelines: 5 Things You and Your Child's Doctor Need to Know New ADHD Guidelines: American Academy of Pediatrics  ADHD-related Issues (National Center for Learning Disabilities) Everything...

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Symptoms of Dyslexia

Is My Child Dyslexic? Individuals with dyslexia have trouble with reading, writing, spelling and/or math even though they have the ability and have had opportunities to learn. Individuals with dyslexia can learn, but they often need specialized instruction to overcome...

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EF & ADHD

Executive Skills in Learning

“Executive function” is a term first used by neurologists and neuro-psychologists to describe a set of high-level thinking skills we need to get things done. The first researchers to try and describe this skill set were focused on people with impairments, like head injuries, and relating it to brain development. Work with children and teenagers who had sustained traumatic brain injuries revealed problems involving planning, organization, time-management, and memory. Inhibition and regulation of emotions was often weak.

More recently, executive skills have assumed a larger role in the explanation and treatment of ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), and we’re seeing an increasing number of children and adolescents who seem to struggle in school because of weak executive skills, but don’t meet the diagnostic criteria for ADD/ADHD or other learning differences. 

We have found that  students can benefit from strategies designed to improve executive function while getting direct instruction and academic coaching.  We provide EF coaching in the context of our comprehensive reading intervention (i.e., we do not offer EF coaching as a stand-alone service).  Children learn and retain executive function strategies best when paired with meaningful academic instruction and intervention.

A List of Executive Functions

Here is a list developed by Drs. Gioia, Isquith, Guy and Kenworthy – a little different than the list you see in our scrolling window on the right (from Executive Skills in Children & Adolescents, P. Dawson & R. Guare, 2010)

  • Inhibition-The ability to stop one’s own behavior at the appropriate time, including stopping actions and thoughts. The flip side of inhibition is impulsivity; if you have weak ability to stoop yourself from acting on your impulses, then you are "impulsive."
  • Shift-The ability to move freely from one situation to an-other and to think flexibly in order to respond appropriately to the situation.
  • Emotional Control-The ability 10 modulate emotional responses by bringing rational thought to bear on feelings.
  • Initiation-The ability to begin a task or activity and to independently generate ideas, responses, or problem-solving strategies.
  • Working Memory-The capacity to hold information in mind for the purpose of completing a task.
  • Planning/Organization-The ability to manage current and future-oriented task demands.
  • Organization of Materials-The ability to impose order on work, play, and storage spaces.
  • Self-Monitoring-The ability to monitor one’s own performance and to measure it against some standard of what is needed or expected.

Read more . . .

Executive Skills by Age